Epaulet Ladybird  Rhyzobius chrysomeloides

Other names: Round-keeled Rhyzobius

This is the commonest ladybird in my recording area, occurring in pine trees, Ivy and ornamental evergreen shrubs.

It is also the only species that I can find, almost at will, on any day of the year.

It occurs in every local garden with ornamental shrubs that I have searched.

It can easily be found wintering in Ivy, using a beating tray. A useful project during the quiet months of November-February.

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Identification          Length  2.5-3.5mm

A brown, long-bodied oval species with long antennae.      

Epaulet Ladybird has a reputation for being easily confused with Meadow Ladybird but I consider the majority to be identifiable in the field. 

The ground colour varies from light oak to deep chestnut.

An obvious feature is a pale curved stripe across the top of the wing cases.

This is sometimes reduced to an orange patch on the shoulder areas, resembling epaulets.

In the most distinctive individuals the curved stripe continues as two stripes running either side of the wing case centre line, forming a pair of tramlines.

The outer wing cases typically have a shield shaped area of dark lines surrounding the pale shoulder curve and tramlines.

This usually includes two vertical lines on each wing case, although these can be fused or broken.

The centre rear often has an anchor shaped mark, with a tooth-like projection on each side contrasting with a pale area on the wing case tips.

The pronotum (between the head and wing cases) have straight and nearly parallel sided edges to the rear. 

Wing case pattern

The majority are a dark chestnut ground colour, although some are a paler oak colour and a few are very dark.

A distinctive feature on many individuals is a pale curved mark on each shoulder area, an epaulet, which often combine to form a continuous pale curve.

       A typical specimen: A deep chestnut colour with blackish markings and an orange curved epaulet across the shoulders                                                                   Waltham Abbey, Essex
A paler individual but still showing a faint pale shoulder stripe                                                  Fishers Green, Lee Valley, Essex
A light oak colour but pattern still distinctive                                             Waltham Abbey, Essex
Very pale with faint epaulet stripe                              Thundridge, Herts

Some have a brighter orange patch, resembling an epaulet, on the outer side of the curved shoulder stripe.

Bright orange epaulets
Waltham Abbey, Essex
                       Small dull epaulets
Fishers Green, Lee Valley, Essex

A small number have the orange patches merging and extending over the top part of the wing cases.

Upshire, Essex
Turnford, Lee Valley, Herts
Upshire, Essex

The most distinctive individuals have the pale curved stripe extending down either side of the wing case central line, forming a pair of tramlines.  

This common pattern is very obvious and eye catching and is often the form that attracts an observer when first discovering this species. These are unlike any Meadow Ladybirds and are very easy to identify.

Very distinctive pale central lines diverging slightly
                                                            Upshire, Essex
Central lines running parallel to each other
                                               Upshire, Essex
Pale but with distinctive pattern
              Waltham Abbey, Essex
Waltham Abbey, Essex
Nazeing, Essex
Turnford, Lee Valley, Herts
Waltham Abbey, Essex

On some the pale tramlines are broken or irregular.

Tramlines separated from shoulder stripe by dark markings
                                                             Sawbridgeworth, Herts
Indistinct broken pattern
          Broxbourne, Herts

Some Epaulet Ladybirds are mostly dark but unlike the darkest Meadow Ladybirds they are not uniformly dark. 

On many there is a ghostly hint of the pale shoulder curve and the pair of tramlines running down either side of the wing case centre line.

The typical dark markings are also usually present, although often obscured.

The dark tooth-like projections often contrast with the pale, often grey, wing case tips.

Dark with pale shoulder patches
                Waltham Abbey, Essex
Dark with hint of epaulet and central lines pattern
                            Fishers Green, Lee Valley, Essex

The dark markings that overlay the lighter markings follow a general pattern, although they are variable.

There is often an anchor like mark at the centre of the rear wing cases. When viewed in reverse, this can resemble a Norman helmet with an extended nose guard.

There are usually two lines running up each wing case (only one vertical line on Meadow Ladybird).

These can be fused to form a large dark area, with a shield like shape. 

Typical shield shaped dark markings with double outer line
                                                                            Exeter, Devon

A few Epaulet Ladybirds are paler and lack the complicated shading typical of this species and can look similar to some Meadow Ladybirds.

The pattern of black lines can be reduced but still follows the same basic template.

A well marked individual with classic anchor mark and double row of outer lines.                                                Upshire, Essex
Anchor shape extended and resembling Norman helmet with nose guard                   Exeter, Devon
Less well marked with broken lines but typical pattern
                                                                  Upshire, Essex
At first glance quite similar to Meadow Ladybird but on closer inspection the faint second inner line is visible with the whole pattern fitting the typical template of Epaulet Ladybird.                                          Waltham Abbey, Essex

Alternatively some have the black markings fused together creating a solidly dark shield shaped area on the rear wing cases.

Upshire, Essex
Upshire, Essex

When photographing a suspected Epaulet Ladybird, it is best to get a photograph from above, as this shows the pattern most clearly.

A side on photograph will not show a subtle pattern well, although it will still be useful, as 

other features may be apparent.

Indistinct dark and light markings
            Braunton Burrows, Devon
The same individual as above, showing hint of the epaulet stripes and tramlines, as well as pale grey wing case tips

Pronotum Shape

The pronotum shape can help in the identification process but is not always diagnostic.

The majority show a strong curve at the corner forming a right angle with a straight edged 

rear section.

The rear section is often nearly parallel sided.

Some are more curved and similar to Meadow Ladybird but most show at least a short straight sided rear section.

Meadow Ladybird usually has a gently curved pronotum, lacking the right angled corner and still curving as it reaches the wing cases.

Very straight sided pronotum
Typical pronotum shape

Antennae Shape

The clubbed antennae are thin, longer than the head width and often held towards the side.

They usually show a distinctive kink at the half way point, resembling a wire coat hanger.

This is the same as Meadow Ladybirds and is typical of ladybirds, so is a good way to rule out look alike beetle species from other family groups.

When disturbed Epaulet Ladybird often sit still with their legs and antennae tucked under the body, so need to be left until they start walking about before this feature can be checked.

Abbey Gardens, Waltham Abbey, Essex

Mixed Photographs

Fishers Green, Lee Valley, Essex
Upshire, Essex
Waltham Abbey, Essex
With 7-spot Ladybird
With Cream-spot Ladybird
With Cream-streaked Ladybird
With 22-spot Ladybird
Beaten from Ivy alongside Opilo mollis and Pogonocherus hispidus                             Fishers Green, Lee Valley, Essex
Round keeled Ladybird
On lid of garden wheelie bin   Upshire, Essex

Variation and Forms

Habitat

Can be common in pine trees, in small copses or individual trees.

Plantation pine tree  Upshire, Essex
Garden pine tree  Upshire, Essex
Small pine tree     Braunton Burrows, Devon
Pine tree     May Day Farm, The Brecks, Suffolk
Pine tree     Turnford, Lee Valley, Herts
Pine copse         Harlow, Essex
Amongst pine needles           Upshire, Essex

They can also be common on Ivy in woodland situations.

In the Lee Valley and around the northern edge of Epping Forest they can easily be found in winter by searching Ivy growing on tree trunks.

Sheltered green lane with plenty of Ivy; ideal habitat
                             Puck Lane, Waltham Abbey, Essex
Ivy.   Fishers Green, Lee Valley, Essex
Ivy.   Hall Marsh, Lee Valley, Essex
Ivy    Turnford, Lee Valley, Herts
Ivy    Fishers Green, Lee Valley, Essex
Ivy.  Cornmill Tree Park, Lee Valley, Essex
Ivy covered building   Hooks Marsh, Lee Valley, Essex
Ivy covered wall   Harlow, Essex

In December 2020 I found Epaulet Ladybirds in the Holly understorey in Epping Forest for the first time.

I have previously found Orange and Forestier's Ladybirds in this habitat.

Holly        Fairmead, Epping Forest, Essex
Holly        Fairmead, Epping Forest, Essex

Epaulet Ladybirds can be abundant in gardens, both rural and urban.

They can be found on Ivy covered fences and on a variety of evergreen shrubs, especially Euonymus, Viburnum tinus, Firethorn, Privet and Cotoneaster.

Euonymus.  Upshire, Essex
Euonymus.  Waltham Abbey, Essex
Euonymus hedge.   Abbey Gardens, Lee Valley, Essex

Firethorn.  Upshire, Essex

Oleaster Elaeagnus      Waltham Abbey, Essex
Privet hedge     Exeter, Devon

Epaulet Ladybirds can easily be found in garden wheelie bins that have been filled with the prunings from these shrubs.

They can also be found in deciduous shrubs, including Weigela, Dogwood and Guelder-rose.
I have also beaten them from low hanging oak tree branches.
Weigela.   Upshire, Essex
Guelder-rose.  Fishers Green, Lee Valley, Essex
Oak tree     Potkiln Wood, Epping Forest, Essex

During July 2020 Mark Hows and I were beating either side of a foot path at Fishers Green, Essex and we were finding Epaulet Ladybirds in almost all pieces of vegetation we sampled, including oak trees, thistles, burdock, White Bryony and Black Horehound.

Oak tree      Fishers Green, Lee Valley, Essex
White Bryony   Fishers Green, Lee Valley, Essex
Burdock       Fishers Green, Lee Valley, Essex

Additional photographs

Beaten from Holm Oak       Whitewebbs, Middlesex
Beaten from Privet hedge     Exeter, Devon
Fairmead, Epping Forest, Essex
Upshire, Essex
Upshire, Essex
Upshire, Essex
Upshire, Essex
Waltham Abbey, Essex
Upshire, Essex
Upshire, Essex
Fishers Green, Lee Valley, Essex
Waltham Abbey, Essex
Hooks Marsh, Lee Valley, Essex
Waltham Abbey, Essex
Fishers Green, Lee Valley, Essex
Bowers Water, Lee Valley, Herts
Waltham Abbey, Essex

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